Words Beyond Time-Space?
Gabriel's Words to Daniel
Event No. 3
Foretold Event: Messiah will be killed
When Foretold: 165 BCE
When Fulfilled: 30 to 33 CE
Time passed from prophecy to fulfillment: 195 Years
Can We Confirm it?: Yes
Gabriel's words to Daniel foretell that the Messiah would be killed. According to Christians, Jesus' crucifixion fulfilled this event. Although open to debate as to the year of Jesus' crucifixion, evidence supports that Jesus was crucified in either the year 30, 32 or 33 CE. This event is recorded in verse 26 as follows:
"the Messiah will be cut off [killed] and have nothing " (Daniel 9:26)
The Hebrew word translated to English as "cut off" has significant meaning as the Hebrew word relates to the life of Jesus and the Christian faith. The Hebrew definition for the word "Karath" which is number 3772 in Strong's concordance shows that it means "to perish" as well as "to covenant," a term used for sacrificial offerings.
The majority of people agree that Jesus was crucified during the Passover in the year 30, 32 or 33 CE.
Does this foretold event meet the seven Einstein Method Guidelines? On the left side of the web page, all items read "YES". Place your mouse over the item to view the graphic window in the upper left corner or click to learn more with a quick pop-up file.
Only the Islamic faith challenges that Jesus was not crucified or that Jesus never died. The problem for Islam is that Muhammad lived 600 years after the event of Jesus’ crucifixion. The Muslim view requires "blind faith" to accept since Jesus is said to have been removed from the cross by Allah. The Einstein Method uses scientific methods. The Muslim view based on faith alone cannot be confirmed. It takes substantial faith to believe that Jesus did not die as compared to the fact that everyone dies.
Is the Islamic view of Jesus' crucifixion credible when compared to discoveries of the 20th century?
In the evidence and analysis presented below, you are presented with five (5) distinct physical items that confront the Islamic view of Jesus' crucifixion. To begin, we have archaeological evidence of four (4) people who looked into Jesus' eyes on the day of the crucifixion. Finally, we have a new discovery in 1995 made by a scholar with a PhD in Physics that links Josephus' writings to the gospel of Luke at the 99% confidence level. The physical evidence and mathematical correlation are presented below.
Can Jesus' crucifixion be documented? Archaeological evidence continues to be found that supports the crucifixion story foretold by Gabriel through Daniel and the New Testament documents that included eyewitness accounts. Consider the following evidence:
(People who Knew Jesus and the Crucifixion Event)
Item No. 1: In 1990, a Jewish burial box called an ossuary was found in Jerusalem. Construction workers using a bull dozer found the ancient burial cave from the 1st century. Inside the cave were 12 ossuaries. Two of the ossuaries had the name "Caiaphas" which supports that the Caiaphas family buried family members at this site. The most ornate ossuary had the words, "Joseph son of Caiaphas" carved on it two times, implicating the importance of the person buried in the ossuary.
In the New Testament, Jesus stood before Caiaphas to be condemned to death. However, the New Testament does not give Caiaphas’ first name.
However, a very important reference to Caiaphas is found in the writings of Josephus. Josephus reveals that Caiaphas used the name Joseph as found on the burial box. "Joseph, who was also called Caiaphas, of the high priesthood" [Antiquities book 18, chapter 4, paragraph 3: Search to find the words "WHO WAS ALSO CALLED" on the linked site]. The ossuary of "Joseph son of Caiaphas" is even more credible due to the writings of Josephus. Both the physical evidence and the written evidence support that Jesus died on the cross as presented in the gospel accounts.
In the New Testament, Caiaphas is spoken of in the books of Matthew, Luke, John, and Acts. Joseph Caiaphas served as the high priest in the years 18 to 36 CE, which matches New Testament dating for the crucifixion.
Item No. 2: Just as important, the New Testament refers to Pontius Pilate, Roman governor of Judea, who ordered Jesus to be crucified. In 1961, archaeologists found a dedication plaque at the Roman amphitheater in Caesarea, which uses the name of Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea, in honor of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. Up to 1961, no physical evidence supported the existence of Pontius Pilate, the New Testament character that gave orders for Jesus to be the crucified.
Item No. 3: Another archaeological find is the discovery of an ossuary referring to "Alexander, son of Simon of Cyrene. In the Gospel of Mark, we read that the Roman soldiers compelled a passer-by, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander, to carry Jesus’ cross (Mark 15:21).
Supporting Evidence from
"The London Sunday Times, BBC"
Probability calculations support that this could in fact be the ossuary of Alexander, whose father carried Jesus' cross. "There are 250 Simons. So if it just said Simon of Cyrene, I would probably say there was a surge of immigrants called Simon from Cyrene, in north Africa, to Jerusalem. But because we have the name Alexander and that is not such a popular name with Jews only 20 in the directory and the biblical Simon of Cyrene is said to have sons Alexander and Rufus, then the chance that this is the ossuary of the son of Simon of Cyrene who carried Jesus' cross is very likely." [The London Sunday Times, BBC, March 31, 1996]
(Crucifixion Verified to be Accurate)
Item No. 4: You can visit the Israeli Museum in Jerusalem and see three items related directly to Jesus' crucifixion. The Caiaphas ossuary, the plaque with the name Pontius Pilate, and an ankle bone with a nail driven through as an example of crucifixion. The ankle bone dated to the 1st century was discovered in 1968 in Jerusalem.
Extra-Biblical Jewish Sources:
(Due to the Spread of the Christian Faith)
Item No. 5: Jewish sources (non-Christian) writing the Talmud documented that Jesus was crucified. Despite their negative view of Jesus, their documentation serves to validate Jesus' crucifixion and the prophecy from Gabriel. Talmud, b. Sanhedrin 43a: On the eve of the Passover Yeshu [Jesus] was hanged [or crucified]. Since nothing was brought forward in his favor he was hanged on the eve of the Passover.
Item No. 6: Jewish sources (non-Christian): Josephus wrote about Jesus and the crucifixion. Recent scholarly research (1995: very interesting new insights into Josephus writing about Jesus about 93 CE) links Josephus views of Jesus to the gospel of Luke with a correlation at the 99% confidence level. It appears that Josephus and the gospel of Luke used the same source to write about Jesus or that Josephus read the gospel of Luke in his explanation of the early Christians. This will be discussed in detail deeper into this web site.
Combination of Evidence
Archaeological Evidence and Non-Christian Source:
(Jesus' Brother named James)
Item No. 7: Jewish sources (non-Christian): Josephus wrote about Jesus' brother, James, who was martyred about 62 CE. In addition, recent archaeological discovery of the James ossuary appears to have scientific support as well as scholarly support that the ossuary may in fact be James, Jesus' brother. Separate from the archaeological evidence, Josephus wrote about both Jesus and James in 93 CE. James was martyred about 62 CE according to Josephus dating of the event. The ossuary has been dated to about 63 CE, which aligns with Josephus' writing about James' martyrdom. Based on Josephus writing about James, the discovery of the James ossuary, and different views by New Testament writers (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Paul) about James, we have an intriguing story. According to New Testament accounts, James did not believe that Jesus was the Messiah. Yet, James turned out to be a strong leader among the early Christians. It took an extraordinary event to change James, who died a martyr in 62 CE.
Some people have done their best to show that the James ossuary is a modern day fraud. The quick pop-up windows to the right take the available evidence and investigate it directly. The evidence against the James ossuary appears to be highly biased based on review alone. Read "Modern Day Fraud" and see the evidence upon which the modern day fraud view point is framed. Discover why it is important to check it out for yourself.
Statistical studies based on available evidence supports that the James ossuary appears to be the bone box of Jesus' brother.
Extra-Biblical Roman Source:
(Due to the Spread of the Christian Faith)
Item No. 8: Roman sources (non-Christian): The Roman Historian Tacitus wrote about the Christians about 115-117 CE. Tacitus reports on Jesus as being crucified by Pontius Pilate.
Item No. 9: The four gospels as well as the writings of the Apostle Paul, James (Jesus' brother), Jude (Jesus' brother), and Peter all report that Jesus was crucified as the Messiah. The early Christians claim to be eyewitness accounts or that they knew of others who witnessed Jesus' life.
Conclusions about the Evidence
Among the references cited above, Josephus, Tacitus, and Luke are considered to be "professional historians." As professionals, they researched their work before publishing it. Both professional historians documented Christ's crucifixion since it became common fact before the end of the 1st century.
The correlation between Josephus and the gospel of Luke at the 99% confidence level is highly intriguing evidence about the early Christians. Josephus published his views [Antiquities] about 93 CE. Modern scholars assume that the gospel of Luke was written after 70 CE. In contrast, conservative scholars think that the gospel of Luke was written about 60 CE. For certain, it appears that Josephus read and used the same source material as Luke or that Josephus read the gospel of Luke. Due to the research on this web site, the relationship between Josephus and Luke will be discussed in greater depth after presenting a mathematical analysis.
Jewish sources who wrote the Talmud also documented that Jesus was crucified. Their view of Jesus is negative. The negative viewpoint actually reinforces the Archangel Gabriel's prophetic words that foretold of the Messiah's death.
Four archaeological artifacts offer substantial evidence since they are all referred to in New Testament documents. All four archaeological finds relate to people who would have known Jesus in some way, especially that Jesus was crucified. These people looked into Jesus' eyes on the day he was crucified.
Positive and Negative Evidence Conclusions
The references and physical evidence are from positive and negative views of Jesus, the crucified Messiah. Both pro and con views of Jesus support that he was crucified, which agrees with Gabriel's prophecy of a Messiah that would be killed. But how can a slain Messiah remain successful?
For more insight, please read the 5th bar on the left entitled: "Not be Fulfilled by Followers" and the 7th bar, "Be verified to occur".
A more important question: It is certain that a human claiming to be the messiah will remain a dead messiah when they die. It is certain that the false messiah will not be successful. Due to this logic, the requirement that the Messiah must die appears to be the divine ordained sign that separates the one and only True Messiah from multitudes of false messiahs. The True Messiah will be successful, as evidenced by the Christian church. The false messiahs are destined to failure.
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Gabriel foretells "When" the Messiah is to Appear